Typical of remote oceanic islands, the terrestrial vertebrate fauna of the LHIG is dominated by birds. One hundred and eighty two species of birds are recorded from the LHIG, of which 20 are resident landbirds, 14 are breeding seabirds, 17 are regular visitors and 120 are vagrants (McAllan et 2004). At the time of European settlement the native avifauna consisted of 26 species of land bird (including 13 migratory waders) and 13 species of sea bird.
Thirteen (50%) of the land birds were endemic species or subspecies. Eleven of the sea bird species continue to have important breeding populations in the LHIG, with Lord Howe Island reputed to have more sea bird species breeding in higher numbers than anywhere else in Australia (P. Fullagar, in Hutton 1998). Two species of birds are classified as locally extinct as they are only known from subfossil remains (McAllan et al. 2004). In contrast to the sea birds, nine of the land bird species have become extinct in the period since human settlement (all endemic species or subspecies). The most recent extinction was the Lord Howe subspecies of Southern Boobook (Ninox novaeseelandiae albaria), which was last recorded in the 1950s.
An additional 18 land bird species and five sea bird species have established populations on the LHIG since settlement, either through intentional human introduction or unassisted colonisation.
The below list shows listed threatened and migratory bird species on Lord Howe Island currently impacted by rodents.